Sharp | 30 caps

18,50

Sharp is a fast acting cognitive enhancer. Ingredients in Sharp have been shown to improve attention and alertness. Sharp will put you in the perfect state to get work done. Effects are present up to 6 hours.

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Description

IMPROVE YOUR PERFORMANCE

IMPROVE YOUR PERFORMANCE

Who?

Sharp is made for everyone who wants to improve their performance. Whether it is studying, giving a presentation, trading stocks or athletic performance. Sharp is there to help you take your performance to the next level.

Why?

Sharp improves attention and alertness while reducing mental fatigue. Perfect for long study sessions and demanding workdays. With Sharp you can perform at the best of your capabilities. Work and study longer and better than ever before.

Ingredients per serving size (2 capsules)

Caffeine improves several measurements of cognitive performance such as attention, alertness and working memory.

L-Tyrosine is a natural amino acid and is the dietary precursor of dopamine, a neurotransmitter important for alertness and focus.  L-tyrosine prevents the decrease in cognitive task performance under physically or mentally challenging conditions or sustained wakefulness.

Guarana extract is made from the seeds of a vine which grows in the Amazon basin and is especially common in Brazil. Guarana extract improves cognitive performance and reduces mental fatigue associated with sustained mental effort.

Vitamin B6 serves as a coenzyme in a variety of enzymatic reactions in the metabolism of amino acids, lipids and neurotransmitter biosynthesis. Vitamin B6 reduces tiredness and fatigue and can help maintain cognitive health in ageing.

Vitamin B12 contributes to normal neurological and psychological functions. In addition, it has been shown to reduce tiredness and fatigue

Kennedy, D. (2016). B Vitamins and the Brain: Mechanisms, Dose and Efficacy—A Review. Nutrients, 8(2), 68.

How?

Cognition is ‘’the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience and the senses’’. Cognition has been studied by many scientific fields such as biology, psychology and neuroscience. In order to objectively measure cognition, it is divided into several categories, each of which can individually be studied. Why is this important for you? People have acquired a thorough understanding of cognition. As a result, scientists were able to examine substances which alter components of cognition. During an intense study session or a challenging work day we may for example experience a lack of attention and energy. All ingredients in Sharp are carefully selected in order to support everyone participating in cognitively demanding tasks.

 

One of the most widely used nootropics is coffee. One cup of coffee contains on average 40 mg caffeine. Caffeine is not only present in coffee but can be found in many other natural sources, such as cacao, tea and guarana. It is estimated that 80% of the world’s population consumes caffeinated products every day [1]. Caffeine improves performance on simple and complex attention tasks and executive control networks e.g. working memory [2]. Caffeine exerts it physiological effects by acting as adenosine receptor antagonist. Meaning, it will block the receptors that bind adenosine and thereby preventing the slowdown of neuronal activity.

 

Since ancient times, it has been said that drinking green tea brings relaxation. The substance that is responsible for this sense of relaxation, is theanine. Theanine is a natural constituent of the plant Camellia sinensis. The leaves of this plant are used for the production of green tea and one cup of green tea contains on average 30 mg of theanine. It has been shown that theanine reduces anxiety without causing drowsiness [3, 4]. Besides the individual effects of theanine supplementation, theanine in combination with caffeine possesses a unique cognitive enhancing effect. The combination of caffeine and theanine supplementation is well studied and documented. Firstly, the combination improves numerous cognitive tests outcomes, including: attention, word recognition and rapid visual information processing [5, 6, 7]. Secondly, theanine mitigates the increased cerebral blood pressure which is observed when caffeine is taken alone [8, 9].

 

The third ingredient used in the Sharp formula is guarana extract. Guarana nuts which are native to the amazon basin contain twice as much caffeine as the normal coffee bean. In addition to caffeine, guarana contains several other constituents that contribute to the overall cognitive enhancing effect of this extract [10]. It is shown that guarana supplementation increases several attention related cognitive tasks compared to placebo [11, 12, 13]. Besides the improvement in cognition, guarana attenuates the mental fatigue associated with extended task performance [12].  The fourth ingredient used in the Sharp formula is tyrosine. Tyrosine is the precursor to the catecholamine neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine, which are the most important neurotransmitters in regard to attention and focus. Several papers indicate that tyrosine supplementation prevents the decrease in cognitive task performance under physically or mentally challenging conditions or sustained wakefulness [14, 15, 16, 17, 18]. The reason for these effects are thought to be the repleting of cognitive resources to build new catecholamine neurotransmitters. Although tyrosine is present in food as well, only tyrosine supplementation results in an increased dopamine concentration in the brain.

 

The fifth ingredient in the Sharp formula is DMAE. DMAE is a naturally occurring nutrient found in fish and it is synthesized in the human brain as well. Supplementation result in increased choline levels and in addition it works as an antioxidant [19, 20]. Finally, yet importantly, the Sharp formula contains vitamin B6 and B12. Vitamin B6 is a coenzyme, meaning its presence is needed in order to perform enzymatic reactions. For example, the enzyme that produces dopamine, needs vitamin B6 to perform its catalytic reaction. Vitamin B6 concentrations in the body, have been shown to be an important determining factor in outcomes of several memory related cognitive tests [21, 22]. Similarly, low vitamin B12 levels have been shown to negatively influence the outcomes of several memory related cognitive tests [22]. It is also shown that vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 levels are an important factor in maintaining cognitive health in ageing [23, 24, 25].

Sources + Links

1. Heckman, M. A. (2010). Caffeine (1, 3, 7‐trimethylxanthine) in Foods: A Comprehensive Review on Consumption, Functionality, Safety, and Regulatory Matters. Journal of Food Science. 75, 3, 77-87.
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01561.x

2. Einöther, S.J.L. and Giesbrecht, T. (2013). Caffeine as an attention enhancer: reviewing existing assumptions. Psychopharmacology, 225: 251.
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00213-012-2917-4

3. Unno, K., Tanida, N., Ishii, N., Yamamoto, H., Iguchi, K. et al. (2013). Anti-stress effect of theanine on students during pharmacy practice: Positive correlation among salivary α-amylase activity, trait anxiety and subjective stress. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, Volume 111, 2013, Pages 128-135.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0091305713002207?via%3Dihub

4. Lekh Raj Juneja, Djong-Chi Chu, Tsutomu Okubo, Yukiko Nagato and Hidehiko Yokogoshi. (1999). L-theanine–a unique amino acid of green tea and its relaxation effect in humans. Trends in Food Science & Technology, Volume 10, Issues 6–7, Pages 199-204
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0924224499000448

5. Janet Bryan; Psychological effects of dietary components of tea: caffeine and L-theanine, Nutrition Reviews, Volume 66, Issue 2, 1 February 2008, Pages 82–90.
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1753-4887.2007.00011.x

6. Crystal F. Haskell, David O. Kennedy, Anthea L. Milne, Keith A. Wesnes, Andrew B. Scholey. (2008) The effects of l-theanine, caffeine and their combination on cognition and mood. Biological Psychology, Volume 77, Issue 2, 2008, Pages 113-122.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301051107001573?via%3Dihub

7. T. Giesbrecht, J.A. Rycroft, M.J. Rowson & E.A. De Bruin (2013) The combination of L-theanine and caffeine improves cognitive performance and increases subjective alertness. Nutritional Neuroscience, 13:6, 283-290.
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1179/147683010X12611460764840

8. Rogers, P.J., Smith, J.E., Heatherley, S.V. et al. Psychopharmacology. (2008). Time for tea: mood, blood pressure and cognitive performance effects of caffeine and theanine administered alone and together. 195: 569.
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00213-007-0938-1

9. Dodd, F. L., Kennedy, D. O., Riby, L. M., & Haskell-Ramsay, C. F. (2015). A double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating the effects of caffeine and L-theanine both alone and in combination on cerebral blood flow, cognition and mood. Psychopharmacology, 232(14), 2563–2576.
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00213-015-3895-0

10. D.O.Kennedy. C.F.Haskell. K.A.Wesnes and A.B.Scholey. (2004). Improved cognitive performance in human volunteers following administration of guarana (Paullinia cupana) extract: comparison and interaction with Panax ginseng. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, Volume 79, Issue 3, Pages 401-411.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0091305704002710?via%3Dihub

11. D.O. Kennedy, C.F. Haskell, B. Robertson, J. Reay, C. Brewster-Maund. et al. (2008). Improved cognitive performance and mental fatigue following a multi-vitamin and mineral supplement with added guarana´ (Paullinia cupana). Appetite, Volume 50, Issues 2–3, 2008, Pages 506-513.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195666307004023?via%3Dihub

12. C. F. Haskell, D. O. Kennedy, K. A. Wesnes, A. L. Milne, and A. B. Scholey. (2007). A double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-dose evaluation of the acute behavioural effects of guaraná in humans. Journal of Psychopharmacology, Vol 21, Issue 1, pp. 65 – 70.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16533867

13. Hase, A., Jung, S. E., & aan het Rot, M. (2015). Behavioral and cognitive effects of tyrosine intake in healthy human adults. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 133, 1-6.
https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s00426-017-0957-4.pdf

14. Andrew B. Dollins, Larry P. Krock, William F. Storm, Richard J. Wurtman, Harris R. Lieberman. (1995). l-Tyrosine ameliorates some effects of lower body negative pressure stress. Physiology & Behavior, Volume 57, Issue 2, 1995, Pages 223-230.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/003193849400278D

15. J.B Deijen, C.J.E Wientjes, H.F.M Vullinghs, P.A Cloin, J.J Langefeld. (1999). Tyrosine improves cognitive performance and reduces blood pressure in cadets after one week of a combat training course. Brain Research Bulletin, Volume 48, Issue 2, 1999, Pages 203-209.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0361923098001634

16. Neri DF, Wiegmann D, Stanny RR, Shappell SA, McCardie A, McKay DL. (1995). The effects of tyrosine on cognitive performance during extended wakefulness. Aviat Space Environ Med. 1995 Apr;66(4):313-9.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7794222

17. Shurtleff D1, Thomas JR, Schrot J, Kowalski K, Harford R. (1994). Tyrosine reverses a cold-induced working memory deficit in humans. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1994 Apr;47(4):935-41.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8029265

18. Hurt, E. A. and Arnold, E. (2011). Dietary and Nutritional Treatments for Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder: Current Research Support and Recommendations for Practitioners. Curr Psychiatry Rep (2011) 13:323–332.
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11920-011-0217-z

19. Vijay K. Kapoor, Janhvi Dureja and Renu Chadha. 2009. Synthetic drugs with anti-ageing effects. Drug Discovery Today, Volume 14, Numbers 17/18.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S135964460900230X?via%3Dihub

20. Deijen, J.B., van der Beek, E.J., Orlebeke, J.F. et al. (1992). Vitamin B-6 supplementation in elderly men: effects on mood, memory, performance and mental effort. Psychopharmacology:Psychopharmacology, 109: 489-496.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1365868

21. Bryan, J., Calvaresi, E. and HUghes, D. (2002). Short-Term Folate, Vitamin B-12 or Vitamin B-6 Supplementation Slightly Affects Memory Performance But Not Mood in Women of Various Ages. American Society for Nutritional Sciences, 0022-3166/02.
https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/132/6/1345/4687903

22. Hughes, C. F., Ward, M., Tracey, F., Hoey, L., Molloy, A. M., Pentieva, K., & McNulty, H. (2017). B-Vitamin Intake and Biomarker Status in Relation to Cognitive Decline in Healthy Older Adults in a 4-Year Follow-Up Study. Nutrients, 9(1), 53.
http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/9/1/53/htm

23. Bhargava, S., Bhandari, A. and Choudhury, S. (2018). Role of Homocysteine in Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease. Indian J Clin Biochem, 33(1):16-20.
https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs12291-017-0646-5.pdf

24. Moore, K., Hughes, C. F., Ward, M. and Hoey, L. (2018). Diet, nutrition and the ageing brain: current evidence and new directions. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, V:77, I:2.
https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/proceedings-of-the-nutrition-society/article/diet-nutrition-and-the-ageing-brain-current-evidence-and-new-directions/8378A6954F727E4680508A7DF5796D03

IMPROVE YOUR PERFORMANCE